Antiatherosclerotic Effect of an Antibody That Binds to Extracellular Matrix Glycosaminoglycans
Objective—Subendothelial retention of proatherogenic lipoproteins by proteoglycans is critical in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the recognition and antiatherogenic properties of a chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) that reacts with sulfated molecules.
Methods and Results—chP3R99 mAb recognized sulfated glycosaminoglycans, mainly chondroitin sulfate (CS), by ELISA. This mAb blocked ≈70% of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)–CS association and ≈80% of LDL oxidation in vitro, and when intravenously injected to Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6, 1 mg/animal), it inhibited LDL (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally, 1 hour later) retention and oxidation in the artery wall. Moreover, subcutaneous immunization of New Zealand White rabbits (n=19) with chP3R99 mAb (100 μg, 3 doses at weekly intervals) prevented Lipofundin-induced atherosclerosis (2 mL/kg, 8 days) with a 22-fold reduction in the intima-media ratio (P<0.01). Histopathologic and ultrastructural studies showed no intimal alterations or slight thickening, with preserved junctions between endothelial cells and scarce collagen fibers and glycosaminoglycans. In addition, immunization with chP3R99 mAb suppressed macrophage infiltration in aorta and preserved redox status. The atheroprotective effect was associated with the induction of anti-CS antibodies in chP3R99-immunized rabbits, capable of blocking CS-LDL binding and LDL oxidation.
Conclusion—These results support the use of anti-sulfated glycosaminoglycan antibody–based immunotherapy as a potential tool to prevent atherosclerosis.
- Received December 9, 2011.
- Accepted January 4, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.