Aldosterone Induces Vascular Insulin Resistance by Increasing Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor and Hybrid Receptor
Objective We previously showed that aldosterone induces insulin resistance in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Because insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) affects insulin signaling, we hypothesized that aldosterone induces vascular insulin resistance and remodeling via upregulation of IGF1R and its hybrid insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor.
Methods and Results Hybrid receptor expression was measured by immunoprecipitation. Hypertrophy of VSMCs was evaluated by 3H-labeled leucine incorporation. Aldosterone (10 nmol/L) significantly increased protein and mRNA expression of IGF1R and hybrid receptor in VSMCs but did not affect insulin receptor expression. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade with eplerenone inhibited aldosterone-induced increases in IGF1R and hybrid receptor. Aldosterone augmented insulin (100 nmol/L)-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. Insulin-induced leucine incorporation and α-smooth muscle actin expression were also augmented by aldosterone in VSMCs. These aldosterone-induced changes were significantly attenuated by eplerenone or picropodophyllin, an IGF1R inhibitor. Chronic infusion of aldosterone (0.75 μg/hour) increased blood pressure and aggravated glucose metabolism in rats. Expression of hybrid receptor, azan-positive area, and oxidative stress in aorta was increased in aldosterone-infused rats. Spironolactone and tempol prevented these aldosterone-induced changes.
Conclusion Aldosterone induces vascular remodeling through IGF1R- and hybrid receptor–dependent vascular insulin resistance. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade may attenuate angiopathy in hypertensive patients with hyperinsulinemia.
- Received April 1, 2011.
- Accepted December 2, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.