S100A8 and S100A9 in Cardiovascular Biology and Disease
There is recent and widespread interest in the damage-associated molecular pattern molecules S100A8 and S100A9 in cardiovascular science. These proteins have a number of interesting features and functions. For example, S100A8 and S100A9 (S100A8/A9) have both intracellular and extracellular actions, they are abundantly expressed in inflammatory and autoimmune states, primarily by myeloid cells but also by other vascular cells, and they modulate inflammatory processes, in part through Toll-like receptor 4 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products. S100A8/A9 also have anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions. Furthermore, increased plasma levels of S100A8/A9 predict cardiovascular events in humans, and deletion of these proteins protects Apoe−/− mice from atherosclerosis. Understanding the roles of S100A8 and S100A9 in vascular cell types and the mechanisms whereby these proteins mediate their biological effects may offer new therapeutic strategies to prevent, treat, and predict cardiovascular diseases.
- Received August 16, 2011.
- Accepted October 31, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.