Geranylgeranylacetone, Heat Shock Protein 90/AMP-Activated Protein Kinase/Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase/Nitric Oxide Pathway, and Endothelial Function in Humans
Objective Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) induces expression of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an adaptor molecule for assembly of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation complex. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GGA enhances Hsp90 expression and augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation via upregulation of eNOS in humans.
Methods and Results We evaluated the effects of GGA on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and on forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in 40 healthy young men. Hsp90, eNOS, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Akt expression in HUVECs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells was detected by Western blot analysis. GGA increased Hsp90 expression and phosphorylation of eNOS and AMPK but not Akt in HUVECs and increased Hsp90 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Oral administration of GGA (600 mg) augmented the FBF response to acetylcholine. Infusion of NG-monomethyl-l-arginine, an NO synthase inhibitor, completely abolished GGA-induced augmentation of the FBF response to acetylcholine. GGA also augmented the acetylcholine-stimulated NO release in smokers.
Conclusion These findings suggest that GGA-induced activation of Hsp90/AMPK significantly increased NO-mediated vasodilation in healthy subjects, as well as in smokers. The use of GGA may be a new therapeutic approach for improving endothelial dysfunction.
- Received August 19, 2008.
- Accepted September 28, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.