Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Modulates Protease-Activated Receptor-1–Driven Neointimal Hyperplasia
Objective—Emerging evidence suggests that protease-activated receptors-1 and -2 (PAR1 and PAR2) can signal together in response to proteases found in the rapidly changing microenvironment of damaged blood vessels. However, it is unknown whether PAR1 and PAR2 promote or mitigate the hyperplastic response to arterial injury. Using cell-penetrating PAR1 pepducins and mice deficient in PAR1 or PAR2, we set out to determine the respective contributions of the receptors to hyperplasia and phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in response to arterial injury.
Methods and Results—SMCs were strongly activated by PAR1 stimulation, as evidenced by increased mitogenesis, mitochondrial activity, and calcium mobilization. The effects of chronic PAR1 stimulation following vascular injury were studied by performing carotid artery ligations in mice treated with the PAR1 agonist pepducin, P1pal-13. Histological analysis revealed that PAR1 stimulation caused striking hyperplasia, which was ablated in PAR1−/− and, surprisingly, PAR2−/− mice. P1pal-13 treatment yielded an expression pattern consistent with a dedifferentiated phenotype in carotid artery SMCs. Detection of PAR1-PAR2 complexes provided an explanation for the hyperplastic effects of the PAR1 agonist requiring the presence of both receptors.
Conclusion—We conclude that PAR2 regulates the PAR1 hyperplastic response to arterial injury leading to stenosis.
- Received May 24, 2011.
- Accepted September 8, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.