Homozygosity for an Allele Encoding Deacetylated FoxO1 Protects Macrophages From Cholesterol-Induced Inflammation Without Increasing Apoptosis
Objective—Insulin resistance renders macrophages more prone to cholesterol-induced apoptosis by promoting nuclear localization of transcription factor FoxO1. However, FoxO1 also decreases macrophage inflammation, raising the question of how the balance between proapoptotic and antiinflammatory effects is determined. We sought to identify the mechanism whereby FoxO1 dampens inflammation without promoting apoptosis. We hypothesized that nutrient-dependent FoxO1 acetylation plays a role in this process.
Methods and Results—We generated knock-in mice bearing alleles that encode constitutively deacetylated FoxO1 and studied the ex vivo response of primary peritoneal macrophages. We show that macrophages derived from mice homozygous for constitutively deacetylated FoxO1 alleles retain antiinflammatory properties in response to free cholesterol loading, without increasing apoptosis. Deacetylated FoxO1 inhibits free cholesterol–induced Akt phosphorylation and increases levels of the nuclear factor-κB precursor p105, decreasing nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 subunit and dampening Mek/Erk activation to prevent inflammation.
Conclusion—Deacetylated FoxO1 regulates p105 to prevent macrophage inflammation without causing apoptosis, suggesting a potential novel therapeutic approach to atherosclerosis through FoxO1 deacetylation.
- Received September 20, 2010.
- Accepted September 13, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.