Therapeutic Angiogenesis of Human Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells Is Enhanced by Thrombomodulin
Objective—We examined the effect of thrombomodulin (TM) domains 2 and 3 (TMD23) on human early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs).
Methods and Results—TM was expressed and released by human EPCs cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Addition of TMD23 (100 ng/mL) to the cultured PBMCs increased the colony-forming units, chemotactic motility, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and interleukin-8 secretion but decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release. Analysis of the signal pathway showed that TMD23 activated Akt. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase–Akt blocked the effects of TMD23 on chemotactic motility, matrix metalloproteinase-9, interleukin-8, and TNF-α. In hindlimb ischemia mice, laser Doppler perfusion imaging of the ischemic limb during the 21 days after arterial ligation showed that the perfusion recovered best with intraperitoneal infusion of TMD23 plus local injection of early EPCs, followed by either infusion of TMD23 or injection of the cells. Animals without either treatment had the worst results. Animals treated with TMD23 also had lower circulating and tissue levels of TNF-α.
Conclusion—TM is expressed and released by human circulating EPCs. Exogenous TMD23 enhances the angiogenic potential of early EPCs in vitro through activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-Akt pathway. Coadministration of TMD23 plus early EPCs augments therapeutic angiogenesis of the EPCs in ischemic tissues.
- Received August 6, 2010.
- Accepted July 19, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.