C/EBP Homologous Protein Deficiency Attenuates Myocardial Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Myocardial Apoptosis and Inflammation
Objective—To investigate whether and how the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress–induced, C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP)-mediated pathway regulates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Methods and Results—Wild-type and chop-deficient mice underwent 50 minutes of left coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Expression of chop and spliced x-box binding protein-1 (sxbp1) mRNA was rapidly and significantly increased in reperfused myocardium of wild-type mice. chop-deficient mice exhibited markedly reduced injury size after reperfusion compared with wild-type mice, accompanied by a decreasing number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling–positive cardiomyocytes. Interestingly, myocardial inflammation, as assessed by expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and numbers of infiltrated inflammatory cells, was also attenuated in chop-deficient mice. Moreover, expression of interleukin-6 mRNA in response to lipopolysaccharide was enhanced by simultaneous stimulation with thapsigargin, a potent ER stressor, in wild-type cardiomyocytes but not in chop-deficient cardiomyocytes. Finally, we found that superoxide was produced in reperfused myocardium and that intravenous administration of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, immediately before reperfusion significantly suppressed the superoxide overproduction and subsequent expression of sxbp1 and chop mRNA, followed by reduced injury size in wild-type mice.
Conclusion—The ER stress–induced, CHOP-mediated pathway, which is activated in part by superoxide overproduction after reperfusion, exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by inducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial inflammation.
- Received October 10, 2010.
- Accepted February 3, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.