Dynamic Changes of Adiponectin and S100A8 Levels by the Selective Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-γ Agonist Rivoglitazone
Objective—Accumulating evidence indicates that the regimen to increase adiponectin will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for metabolic syndrome. Here, we tested the effect of a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ agonist, rivoglitazone (Rivo), a newly synthesized thiazolidinedione derivative, on adiponectin, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis.
Methods and Results—ob/ob mice, apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE KO) mice, and apoE and adiponectin double knockout mice were administered pioglitazone, Rivo, or no compound. Remarkable elevation of plasma adiponectin was observed, especially in Rivo-treated ob/ob mice. Rivo ameliorated insulin resistance in ob/ob mice and reduced atherosclerotic areas in apoE KO mice compared with the pioglitazone group but failed to decrease atherosclerotic areas in double knockout mice. Among adipose mRNAs, adipose S100A8, which activates Toll-like receptor 4–dependent signal transduction cascades and locates upstream of inflammation, was markedly increased in ob/ob mice, and its increase was completely reversed by Rivo treatment. In RAW264.7 macrophage cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Rivo significantly reduced S100A8 mRNA levels.
Conclusion—The peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ agonist Rivo remarkably enhanced adiponectin in plasma and decreased adipose S100A8 mRNA levels in obese mice. Rivo treatment apparently ameliorated insulin resistance in ob/ob mice and reduced atherosclerosis in apoE KO mice, partly through adiponectin.
- Received July 27, 2010.
- Accepted January 3, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.