Modification of low density lipoprotein with 4-hydroxynonenal induces uptake by macrophages.
There is indirect evidence that the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Modification of LDL by oxidation may lead to its unregulated uptake by intimal macrophages to form foam cells. Because of the complexity of events occurring during LDL oxidation, we have tested whether LDL modified directly with 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a major propagation product formed during lipid peroxidation and known to be present in oxidized LDL, could bring about lipid loading of macrophages. Modification was accomplished by incubating LDL with various concentrations of HNE up to 7.5 mM. When LDL was derivatized with lower concentrations of HNE, concentration-dependent increases were observed in the covalent binding of HNE to apolipoprotein B (apo B), the blockage of the epsilon-amino groups on lysine residues of apo B, and the relative electrophoretic mobility of LDL. Decreases were observed in degradation of the modified LDL by the J774 cell line, mouse peritoneal macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. Modification of LDL by incubation with the higher concentrations of HNE resulted in LDL aggregation. This modification was associated with marked increases in the macrophage degradation of LDL. Degradation of aggregated HNE-modified LDL increased linearly with incubation time, leading to lipid loading of these cells as observed by oil red O staining and cholesterol accumulation. Uptake appeared to occur by phagocytosis, since cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of phagocytosis, quantitatively inhibited uptake and degradation of labeled HNE LDL. Uptake did not appear to be mediated by either the LDL receptor or the scavenger receptor, since competition with excess amounts of LDL or acetyl LDL failed to inhibit degradation of labeled, aggregated HNE LDL. Saturation of degradation of HNE LDL by macrophages could be attributed, in part, to steric hindrance, since both excess HNE LDL and other particulate ligands could inhibit this degradation. These studies suggest that interaction of LDL with HNE formed during lipid peroxidation could be responsible for structural modifications leading to unregulated uptake of the lipoprotein by tissue macrophages. This could partially explain lipid loading or foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association