Cell biology of arterial proteoglycans.
Although proteoglycans constitute a minor component of vascular tissue, these molecules have been shown to influence a number of arterial properties such as viscoelasticity, permeability, lipid metabolism, hemostasis, and thrombosis. A hallmark of early and late atherosclerosis is the accumulation of proteoglycans in the intimal lesions. Yet, it is not clear why this accumulation occurs. This article reviews the classes of proteoglycans synthesized by the two major cell types of the arterial wall--the endothelial and smooth muscle cell. Detailed consideration is then given to the modulation of proteoglycan metabolism and the role that proteoglycans play in a number of cellular events such as adhesion, migration, and proliferation--important processes in both the development and the pathogenesis of blood vessels. Last, the involvement of proteoglycans in two critical vascular wall processes--hemostasis and lipid metabolism--is reviewed, because these events pertain to atherogenesis. This review emphasizes the importance of proteoglycans in regulating several key events in normal and pathophysiological processes in the vascular tissue.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association