Ca++ antagonists and ACAT inhibitors promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages by different mechanisms. I. Characterization of cellular lipid metabolism.
The effects of the slow Ca++ channel blocker, nifedipine, and ACAT inhibitor, octimibate, on the cholesterol metabolism of cholesterol-loaded macrophages were compared. We demonstrated that apolipoprotein A-I containing high density lipoproteins (HDL) bind to specific receptor sites on macrophages, are internalized, take up cholesterol, and are then released from the cells as native lipoproteins. The ACAT inhibitor enhances HDL receptor activity and promotes HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages. In contrast, the Ca++ antagonist increases acetyl LDL-mediated cholesterol influx, abolishes the increase in HDL binding induced by cholesterol accumulation, enhances apo E synthesis, and promotes cholesterol efflux by a mechanism independent of the presence of HDL in the surrounding medium. Concomitantly, a decrease in nucleoside transporter activity, an increase in intracellular ATP hydrolysis, adenosine and cyclic AMP concentration, and a stimulation of the activities of acid and neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase and ACAT indicated that protein kinase A-catalyzed phosphorylation reactions might be involved in the increase in cholesterol efflux. The Ca++ antagonist-induced efflux occurred only with lysosomal-associated cholesterol, while the ACAT inhibitor acted on the formation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The secreted lipoprotein particles contained 68% unesterified cholesterol and 21% phospholipids, 8% esterified cholesterol, and 3% triglycerides. The phospholipid components were: 72% phosphatidylcholine, 22% sphingomyelin, and 6% phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. We conclude that macrophages release cholesterol in two ways: 1) an HDL-mediated release of unesterified cholesterol increasing upon ACAT inhibition, and 2) an HDL-independent secretion of cholesterol which can be amplified by Ca++ antagonists.
- Copyright © 1988 by American Heart Association