Abstract 518: In Vitro and in vivo Disease Modeling Using Patient Derived iPSCs to Characterize the Calcification Phenotype in Arterial Calcification Due to Deficiency of CD73
Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based disease model to understand the process by which CD73-deficiency leads to vascular calcification in the disease, Arterial Calcification due to Deficiency of CD73 (ACDC).
Approach & Results: ACDC is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from mutations in the gene encoding for CD73, which converts extracellular AMP to adenosine. CD73-deficiency manifests with tortuosity and vascular calcification of the medial layer of lower-extremity arteries, a pathology associated with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. We previously identified that dermal fibroblasts isolated from ACDC patients calcify in vitro, however in vivo studies of the vasculature are limited, as murine models of CD73 deficiency do not recapitulate the human disease phenotype. Thus, we created iPSCs from ACDC patients and control fibroblasts. ACDC and Control iPSCs form teratomas when injected in immune-compromised mice, however ACDC iPSC teratomas exhibit extensive calcifications. Control and ACDC iPSCs were differentiated down the mesenchymal lineage (MSC) and while there was no difference in chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, ACDC iMSCs underwent osteogenesis sooner than control iPSC, have higher activity of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), and lower levels of extracellular adenosine. During osteogenic simulation, TNAP activity in ACDC cells significantly increased adenosine levels, however, not to levels needed for functional compensatory stimulation of the adenosine receptors. Inhibition of TNAP with levimisole ablates this increase in adenosine. Treatment with an A2b adenosine receptor (AR) agonist drastically reduced TNAP activity in vitro, and calcification in ACDC teratomas, as did treatment with etidronate, which is currently being tested in a clinical trial on ACDC patients.
Conclusions: These results illustrate a pro-osteogenic phenotype in CD73-deficient cells whereby TNAP activity attempts to compensate for CD73 deficiency, but subsequently induces calcification that can be reversed by activation of the A2bAR. The iPSC teratoma model may be used to screen other potential therapeutics for calcification disorders.
Author Disclosures: C. St. Hilaire: None. H. Jin: None. Y. Huang: None. D. Yang: None. A. Negro: None. A. Walts: None. Y. Liu: None. J. Davaine: None. R. Schwartzbeck: None. Z. Yu: None. N. Dmitrieva: None. D. Donahue: None. G. Chen: None. M. Boehm: None.
- © 2016 by American Heart Association, Inc.