Abstract 335: Atheroma-specific Delivery of Synthetic High-density Lipoprotein Containing Sphingosine-1-phosphate for Modulation of Vascular Inflammation.
Introduction: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent anti-inflammatory signaling lipid carried in the body by circulating HDL. HDL has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities through activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and subsequent production and release of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial cells.
Objective: The aim of this study is to use synthetic HDL particles to selectively deliver S1P to the site of arterial plaques in order to exert anti-inflammatory activity and modulate the progression of atherosclerosis.
Methods/Results: Synthetic HDL (sHDL) particles were prepared using the ApoA1 mimetic peptide 22A (PVLDLFRELLNELLEALKQKLK), dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and sphingomyelin. We also prepared sHDL containing either the hydrophobic dye, DiD, or S1P to assess the capability of sHDL to effectively reach atheroma site and induce nitric oxide (NO) release, respectively. The purity of all particles was determined to be > 97% and average particle size was 9.6 ± 0.4 nm for all preparations. To measure sHDL accumulation in the plaque, ApoE-/- mice were intravenously injected with 0.2 mg/kg HDL-DiD. Whole aortas were excised and analysed by IVUS imaging system, revealing significant accumulation of sHDL-DiD in the atherosclerotic lesions. We then tested the ability of sHDL to deliver S1P in vitro and induce NO production by treating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with 1 mg/mL of 22A-DPPC-sHDL containing 0, 0.05, 0.5, or 5 nmol/mL of S1P using free 22A peptide (1 mg/mL) and saline as controls, and analyzing media by ozone chemiluminescence. Blank sHDL particles increased NO production two-fold over controls (0.27 ± 0.02 μM for 22A-DPPC-sHDLDL, 0.13 ± 0.01 μM PBS and 0.14 ± 0.02 μM for 22A peptide), while HDL-S1P further increased NO release: 0.35 ± 0.03, 0.44 ± 0.01, and 0.59 ± 0.01 μM for HDL with 0.05, 0.5, and 5 nmol/mL S1P, respectively.
Conclusions: Our studies show that HDL is capable of delivering hydrophobic cargo to atherosclerotic plaques, making HDL a promising platform to deliver S1P for modulation vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. In vitro studies have revealed that HDL-S1P is able to increase NO production 2 to 4-fold over saline control setting the basis for future in vivo studies.
Author Disclosures: E.E. Morin: Research Grant; Significant; NIH T32-GM008353. Y. Guo: None. R. Kuai: Research Grant; Modest; Broomfield International Student Fellowship. G. Lautner: None. M.E. Meyerhoff: None. Y. Chen: Research Grant; Significant; NIH R01HL068878, NIH R01 HL117491. A. Schwendeman: Research Grant; Significant; AHA 13SDG17230049 (AS), NIH R01 GM113832.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.