Abstract 188: Selective Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration by Targeting Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1
Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of mammalian plasminogen activators and an important regulator of cell migration. We have shown that tiplaxtinin, a small molecule, specific inhibitor of PAI-1, inhibits intimal hyperplasia in a murine vein graft model. However, little is known about the effects of pharmacological inhibition of PAI-1 on vascular cell migration under physiologically relevant conditions.
Methods: We studied the effects of tiplaxtinin on migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs).
Results: Tiplaxtinin significantly inhibited migration of murine SMCs through 3-dimensional (3-D) collagen matrix in a concentration-dependent manner. Tiplaxtinin did not inhibit SMC proliferation, and it did not inhibit migration of PAI-1-deficient SMCs, suggesting that tiplaxtinin’s effect on SMCs was non-toxic and PAI-1-dependent. The anti-migratory effect of tiplaxtinin on SMCs was preserved in collagen 3-D matrix containing vitronectin and other extracellular matrix molecules, further supporting the physiological significance of the effect. In contrast to SMCs, tiplaxtinin did not inhibit migration of human aortic ECs in vitro or murine ECs in vivo, the latter assessed in a murine carotid injury model. To study the basis for the differential effect of tiplaxtinin on SMCs vs. ECs, we compared expression of LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), a motogenic receptor for PAI-1, between cell types by RT-PCR and found that LRP1 gene expression was significantly lower in ECs than in SMCs. Furthermore, recombinant PAI-1 stimulated the migration of wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but not LRP1-deficient MEFs.
Conclusions: Tiplaxtinin, a pharmacological inhibitor of PAI-1, inhibits SMC migration under physiological conditions, while having no inhibitory effect on EC migration. The differential effect of PAI-1 inhibition on SMCs vs. ECs appears to be mediated by LRP1 and may be of clinical significance, as it is advantageous to prevent intimal hyperplasia by inhibiting SMC migration without inhibiting EC migration, which is key to preserving an intact, anti-thrombotic vascular endothelium.
Author Disclosures: N. Goyal: None. Z. Weng: None. P. Fish: None. T. Strawn: None. S. Myears: None. Y. Ji: None. J. Wu: None. W.P. Fay: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.