Abstract 169: Impaired Shear Stress-induced Endothelial Nitric Oxide Production in High Glucose Condition is Restored by Inhibiton via NADPH Consumption by Polyol Pathway Activation
Endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease risk involves a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) production. In physiological conditions shear stress is a potent stimulation of endothelium-derived NO production and flow mediated NO production is regulated by the activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). In endothelial cells, eNOS, aldose reductase (AR), a rate limiting enzyme of polyol pathway, and glutathione reductase (GR) share a NADPH as an obligate cofactor. In diabetec condition intracellular polyol pathway is activated and this may decrease shear stress-induced endothelial NO production and increase intracellular oxidative stress via inhibition of eNOS and GR by NADPH consumption. Therefore we investigated whethter AR inhibitor epalrestat improved endothelial NO production under high glucose condition to elucidate the mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes.
We incubated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in normal (5mM) and high (30mM) glucose condition for 72 hours, with or without epralrestat, or 100U/ml superoxide dismutase (SOD), respectively. After exchange of medium for Krebs’ buffer, HUVECs were exposed to 12dyne/cm2 steady laminar fluid shear stress for 5 minutes. NO release from HUVECs was measured as NO2 using a NOx analyzing HPLC system by Griess reaction. Next we harvested the cells in lysis buffer and analyzed phosphorylation of Akt (shear induced intracellular signal transduction) and eNOS by western blotting, and measured intracellular 8-OHdG and ratio of NADPH/NADP.
In high glucose condition NO2 was decreased and 8-OHdG increased compared to low glucose. NO2 was restored and 8-OHdG was reduced by epalrestat significantly (p<0.01, p<0.05, respectively, vs. high glucose condition). In SOD-treated HUVECs, NO2 was not restored (n.s. vs. high glucose condition) despite of complete reduction of 8-OHdG (p<0.01). Both Akt and eNOS phosphorylation by shear stress was affected neither by high glucose, epalrestat nor SOD. Intracellular NADPH/NADP ratio was decreased in high glucose condition, but this reduction was restored by epalrestat.
These results showed that polyol pathway activation plays a key role in endothelial NO production under high glucose condition via a cofactor NADPH.
Author Disclosures: T. Umemoto: None. M. Kuroki: None. H. Ueba: None. M. Kawakami: None. H. Fujita: None. S. Momomura: None.
- © 2015 by American Heart Association, Inc.