Abstract 660: Local Hemodynamic Forces and Aqueous Cigarette Smoke Extract Affect Development of Endothelial Dysfunction
Endothelial dysfunction is one of the first steps in the development of atherosclerosis. This proinflammatory phenotype is associated with decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide and a corresponding expression profile in the endothelial cells. Tobacco smoking promotes development of atherosclerotic plaques and local hemodynamic forces are key stimuli in this process. Low laminar flow is involved in the development of an unstable plaque phenotype, while high laminar flow has atheroprotective role. The molecular mechanisms controlling plaque stability in response to tobacco smoking remain largely unknown so far. Therefore, we exposed human endothelial cells to cigarette smoke extract (CSEaq) under disturbed flow conditions.
Primary human endothelial cells were stimulated with increasing dosages of CSEaq for 24h. Cell viability was reduced by CSEaq in a dose-dependent manner. The impact of specific flow conditions and different doses of CSEaq on the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes was investigated using a cone-and-plate viscometer. High laminar flow induced elongation of endothelial cells in the direction of flow, increased eNOS expression and NO release in a time-dependent manner. This increase was inhibited by CSEaq. Low laminar flow showed no effect on eNOS expression and NO release. The NRF2 antioxidative defense system was also induced by high laminar flow. NRF2 and NRF2 target genes HMOX1 and NQO1 were strongly activated by CSEaq. Furthermore, we monitored the expression of proinflammatory genes. CSEaq strongly induced adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Interestingly, VCAM-1 was unaffected by CSEaq. Induction of endothelial NADPH oxidase isoform 4 by CSEaq was prevented by high laminar flow. Catalase expression was not affected by flow and CSEaq, whereas CSEaq transiently increased SOD1 expression. Endothelial wound healing was improved by atheroprotective high laminar flow. Low flow did not affect wound healing. Furthermore, high laminar flow decreased adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells, compared to low flow.
We suggest novel molecular mechanisms how tobacco smoking promotes the development of endothelial dysfunction. This can contribute to the formation of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype.
Author Disclosures: S. Giebe: None. C. Brunssen: None. M. Brux: None. N. Cockcroft: None. K. Hewitt: None. H. Morawietz: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.