Abstract 40: Disturbed Flow Alters Genomewide DNA Methylation Patterns, Regulating Endothelial Gene Expression and Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis preferentially occurs in arterial regions of disturbed blood flow (d-flow), which alters gene expression, endothelial function, and atherosclerosis. Here, we show that d-flow regulates genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-dependent manner. We found that d-flow induced expression of DNMT1, but not DNMT3a or DNMT3b, in mouse arterial endothelium in vivo and in cultured endothelial cells by oscillatory shear (OS) compared to unidirectional laminar shear in vitro. The DNMT inhibitor 5-Aza-2’deoxycytidine (5Aza) or DNMT1 siRNA significantly reduced OS-induced endothelial inflammation. Moreover, 5Aza reduced lesion formation in two atherosclerosis models using ApoE-/- mice (western diet for 3 months and the partial carotid ligation model with western diet for 3 weeks). To identify the 5Aza mechanisms, we conducted two genome-wide studies: reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and transcript microarray using endothelial-enriched gDNA and RNA, respectively, obtained from the partially-ligated left common carotid artery (LCA exposed to d-flow) and the right contralateral control (RCA exposed to s-flow) of mice treated with 5Aza or vehicle. D-flow induced DNA hypermethylation in 421 gene promoters, which was significantly prevented by 5Aza in 335 genes. Systems biological analyses using the RRBS and the transcriptome data revealed 11 mechanosensitive genes whose promoters were hypermethylated by d-flow but rescued by 5Aza treatment. Of those, five genes contain hypermethylated cAMP-response-elements in their promoters, including the transcription factors HoxA5 and Klf3. Their methylation status could serve as a mechanosensitive master switch in endothelial gene expression. Our results demonstrate that d-flow controls epigenomic DNA methylation patterns in a DNMT-dependent manner, which in turn alters endothelial gene expression and induces atherosclerosis.
Author Disclosures: J. Dunn: None. H. Qiu: None. S. Kim: None. D. Jjingo: None. R. Hoffman: None. C. Kim: None. I. Jang: None. K. Jordan: None. H. Jo: None.
This research has received full or partial funding support from the American Heart Association.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.