Abstract 342: The Antiapoptotic Function of APEX Nuclease (Multifunctional DNA Repair Enzyme) 1 in Endothelial Cells Is Linked to Changes in Transcription Factor Activities and Independent of Its DNA Repair Domain
APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1 (APEX1) has both DNA repair and redox regulatory activity. Interestingly, APEX1 is also able to modulate transcription factor reduction, a prerequisite for DNA binding, independent of its intrinsic redox activity, probably by recruiting other reducing molecules like Thioredoxin-1 (TXN). APEX1 has been shown to exert anti-apoptotic properties in different cell lines and is localized in the cytosol and in the nucleus. So far it has not been studied whether APEX1 acts anti-apoptotic in primary human endothelial cells (EC) and whether this is dependent on its nuclear or cytosolic localization.
After cloning human APEX1 and overexpression in EC we demonstrated that it inhibits not only basal but also H2O2-induced apoptosis. To further characterize the anti-apoptotic properties of APEX1 we generated mutants that lacked the C-terminal DNA repair domain (APEX1ΔC 1-127) or the N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) (APEX1ΔN 21-318). We first analyzed the localization of the mutants by immunostaining. APEX1wt and APEX1ΔC 1-127 showed a predominant nuclear staining whereas APEX1ΔN 21-318 was mainly localized in the cytosol. With respect to the anti-apoptotic properties, only the mutant with intact NLS and redox domain APEX1ΔC 1-127 prevented apoptosis both under basal conditions as well as after H2O2 treatment similar to APEX1wt.
The association between nuclear localization of APEX1wt and its anti-apoptotic properties in EC suggests that this function is linked to changes in transcription factor activities. It is known that the p65 subunit of the transcription factor complex NF-kB is activated by pro-apoptotic stimuli in EC. Using a specific DNA binding assay we could show that overexpression of APEX1wt and APEX1ΔC 1-127 reduced DNA binding of p65, whereas the NLS-deficient mutant had no effect.
In conclusion, the anti-apoptotic activity of APEX1 in EC critically depends on its nuclear localization and redox-activity, is independent of its DNA repair domain and is at least partially due to suppression of NF-kB dependent, pro-apoptotic gene expression programs. In future studies we will analyze the impact of APEX1 on other transcription factors in concert with TXN.
Author Disclosures: N. Dyballa-Rukes: None. L. Rabanter: None. C. Goy: None. J. Altschmied: None. J. Haendeler: None.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.