Abstract 164: The Role of IEX-1 in Venous Stenosis Formation Associated With Arteriovenous Fistula Used for Hemodialysis
Purpose: The majority of patients with end stage renal disease who require hemodialysis use a arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for their vascular access. However, only 40% of AVFs are clinically usable after 1 year. Arteriovenous fistulas fail because of venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) that develops in the proximal outflow vein. The immediate early gene, IEX-1 (IER-3), is increased in response to shear stress and hypoxia and both factors contribute to VNH. IEX-1 expression was increased in stenotic venous stenoses removed from patients with hemodialysis vascular access compared to controls. We hypothesized that reducing the expression of IEX-1 using a knockout mouse model with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and AVFs would have decreased VNH compared to wild type (WT) mice.
Methods: CKD was induced by performing a nephrectomy. Four weeks later, an AVF was placed to connect the carotid artery to ipsilateral jugular vein. The mice were sacrificed 3 and 28 days after fistula creation and outflow veins were harvested for gene expression and histomorphometric analyses.
Results: By day 3, the average gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) was significantly lower in the IEX-1 KO vs. WT mice (average reduction: 40%, P<0.05). At day 28, the average lumen vessel area was increased significantly (average increase: 133%, P<0.05, IEX-1 KO vs. WT, respectively) while the average area of the neointima was significantly decreased (average reduction: 20%, IEX-1 KO vs. WT, respectively). Accompanied with this, there was a significant decrease in α-SMA staining and Ki-67 proliferation while the average TUNEL staining was significantly increased (all P<0.05, IEX-1 KO vs. WT). Finally, there was a significant decrease in the average staining intensity for VEGF-A and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the KO vs. WT mice (both, P<0.05).
Conclusion: A reduction in IEX-1 gene expression results in positive vascular remodeling accompanied with a reduction in proliferation and α-SMA density mediated through a VEGF-A/MMP-9 pathway. Taken collectively, these findings indicate that reducing IEX-1 expression is protective for VNH formation and provide a rationale for use of anti-IEX-1 therapies aimed at prolonging AVF function.
Author Disclosures: A. Brahmbhatt: None. B. Yang: None. E. Nieves-Torres: None. D. McCall: None. D. Mukhopadhyay: None. R. Kumar: None. S. Misra: Research Grant; Significant; HL098967.
- © 2014 by American Heart Association, Inc.