Abstract 5: Sortilin Regulates Hepatic VLDL Secretion and LDL Uptake in a Lysosome-Dependent Manner
Sortilin, the protein product of the SORT1 gene, is a multi-ligand sorting receptor involved in Golgi to lysosome and plasma membrane to lysosome protein trafficking. Genome wide association studies for lipid traits have identified the 1p13 locus harboring the SORT1 gene as strongly associated both with plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and myocardial infarction (MI) risk in humans. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated hepatic sortilin overexpression in LDL receptor deficient mice reduced plasma cholesterol by 30% at two weeks (n = 6 mice per group, P = 0.02), with a concomitant reduction in LDL-C. In vivo VLDL production studies demonstrated a 50% reduction in the VLDL triglyceride secretion rate (P = 0.007) and a 50% reduction in apoB secretion (P = 0.02) with sortilin overexpression. In vivo LDL turnover studies demonstrated a 3-fold increase in the LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) with sortilin overexpression (n = 6 mice per group, P = 0.00002). Sortilin deficiency both alone and on an LDL receptor deficient background led to a 40% and 50% reduction in FCR (n = 6 mice per group, P = 0.002 and P = 0.01). The effect of sortilin on both VLDL secretion and LDL turnover is dependent on the ability of sortilin to traffic to the lysosome, as sortilin mutants that cannot traffic to the lysosome do not affect VLDL secretion or LDL uptake in vivo or in vitro. Surface plasmon reasonance demonstrated a high affinity interaction between sortilin and the apoB in LDL particles at physiological pH with a Kd of ∼2 nM, and this affinity virtually disappears at the acidic lysosomal pH. In sum, these data are consistent with a model in which sortilin binds apoB-containing lipoprotein particles in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane and traffics them to the endolysosomal compartment for degradation, thereby reducing VLDL secretion and facilitating LDL uptake, explaining the strong association of hepatic sortilin overexpression in humans with reduced plasma cholesterol.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.