Abstract 313: The Nuclear Liver X Receptor as a Potential Regulator of Interleukin 18 Binding Protein in the Lung
Background and Objectives: Second hand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including emphysema and chronic bronchitis in non-smokers. The role of liver X receptor (LXR) in the pathogenesis of COPD/emphysema is not well understood. Both LXR and LXR were found in the lung.
The alpha isoform is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism whereas the beta isoform is involved in the regulation of inflammation. Here we investigate the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on LXR activation as well as target gene and protein regulation in vivo and in vitro.
Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to SHS for 2 months. Lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) cells were examined for LXR gene expression and emphysema development (measured by mean linear intercept). Rat alveolar macrophages (AM) and rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMVEC) were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE), LPS or DMHCA, a steroidal LXR agonist) in vitro and changes in LXR and its target gene and protein expression were examined.
Results: LXR gene expression was impaired and the expression of the LXR target gene, ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), was significantly downregulated in BALf cells from SHS-exposed rat lungs and in rat AM treated with CSE. Real-time PCR revealed significant downregulation of LXR and upregulation of LXR in BALf cells after 1 month of SHS exposure. Similar changes were also observed in CSE-treated RPMVEC. There was a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory interleukin 18 (IL18) levels in BALf cells of SHS-exposed rats, whereas the levels of IL18 binding protein (IL18bp), an endogenous inhibitor of IL18, remained unchanged. Interestingly, activation of LXR led to upregulation of IL18bp in AM and peritoneal macrophages where potential LXR response element (LXRE) sites were indentified, in silico, in the promoter region of IL18bp. Additionally, emphysematous changes and foamy macrophage accumulation were observed in lungs of LXR-deficient mice.
Conclusions: These findings implicate IL18bp as a new LXR target gene involved in the anti-inflammatory signaling pathway. Our data suggest that LXR agonist treatment may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of CS-induced emphysema.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.