Abstract 153: Bile Acid Receptor TGR5 Agonism Represents Anti-inflammatory Effects via Stimulating Nitric Oxide Production in Vascular Endothelial Cells
Objective TGR5, a membrane-bound, G-protein-coupled receptor for bile acids, is known to be involved in regulation of energy homeostasis and inflammation. However, little is known about the function of TGR5 in vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we examined whether TGR5 agonism represents anti-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells focusing on nitric oxide (NO) production.
Methods and Results In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), treatment with taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), which has the highest affinity to TGR5 among various bile acids, significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 protein expression and adhesion of human monocytes, U937. These effects were abrogated by a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). In bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), treatment with TLCA as well as lithocholic acid, which also has high affinity to TGR5, significantly increased the NO production. In contrast, deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, which possess low affinity to TGR5, did not affect the NO production. Gene depletion of TGR5 by siRNA transfection abolished TLCA-induced NO production in BAECs. TLCA-induced NO production was also observed in HUVECs measured as intracellular cGMP accumulation. We next investigated the signal pathways responsible for the TLCA-induced NO production in endothelial cells. Treatment with TLCA increased endothelial NOS (eNOS)ser1177 phosphorylation in HUVECs. This response was accompanied by increased Aktser473 phosphorylation and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Treatment with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002, or blockade of calcium channel with La3+, significantly decreased TLCA-induced eNOSser1177 phosphorylation and subsequent NO production.
Conclusion These results indicate that TGR5 agonism can mediate anti-inflammatory responses by suppressing VCAM-1 expression and monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells. This function is dependent on NO production via Akt activation and [Ca2+]i increase.
- © 2012 by American Heart Association, Inc.