Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome
Mechanisms and Consequences
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported that diabetes mellitus affected 8.3% of the United States population in 2011. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is insidious; of the 25.8 million persons affected, the CDC indicated that ≈7 million were undiagnosed subjects.1 The health care costs and burden of diabetes mellitus are substantial; although cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, other complications such as those in the eye, kidney, and nervous system may greatly impact the quality and span of life. A leading risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is obesity; obesity rates have risen dramatically in the United States over the past 2 decades. At present, the CDC estimates that 35.7% of Americans are obese.2 Alarmingly, the rise in obesity in adolescents renders many young people vulnerable to diabetes mellitus and its sequelae.3
See accompanying articles on pages 1754, 1760, 1766, and 1771
This Miniseries on “Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome” will present a review of recent insights into the mechanisms that underlie these disorders, such as inflammation, tissue specific roles of insulin receptor signaling, glycation, and genetic predisposition; the consequences to human subjects, such as diabetes mellitus, cognitive impairment, and cancer, and insights into potential therapeutic interventions based on preclinical investigation and clinical trials. The value of pharmacological and life style intervention changes will be discussed.
As current epidemiological data highlight the worldwide epidemic of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome facing the future generations, public health awareness of this problem and rigorous basic science and clinical research are essential to stem the tide of these disorders. This miniseries underscores lessons learned from research and the evidence supporting specific interventions.
Articles in this series:
Schmidt AM. Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: mechanisms and consequences. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1753.
Reaven G. Insulin resistance and coronary heart disease in nondiabetic individuals. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1754–1759.
Song F, Schmidt AM. Glycation and insulin resistance: novel mechanisms and unique targets? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1760–1765.
Hursting SD, Hursting MJ. Growth signals, inflammation, and vascular perturbations: mechanistic links between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1766–1770.
Romeo GR, Lee J, Shoelson SE. Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and roles of inflammation mechanisms and therapeutic targets. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1771–1776.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.
- 1.↵Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf. Accessed June 28, 2012.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- 3.↵Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Childhood overweight and obesity. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/index.html. Accessed June 28, 2012.