Induction of Anti-Anti-Idiotype Antibodies Against Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans Reduces Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E–Deficient Mice
Objective—The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is associated with the early retention of low-density lipoproteins that are trapped in the extracellular matrix of the arterial intima by interaction with glycosaminoglycan side chains of proteoglycans. Mutant mouse/human chimeric antibodies of the murine monoclonal antibody P3, which react with N-glycolyl–containing gangliosides and sulfated glycosaminoglycans, were tested for their potentially antiatherogenic properties through the induction of an idiotypic antibody network that may specifically interfere with the binding of low-density lipoproteins to proteoglycan side chains, low-density lipoprotein modification, and foam cell formation.
Methods and Results—Apolipoprotein E–deficient mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet received 5 to 6 doses of chP3R99 or chP3S98 mutant antibodies, showing high and low reactivity, respectively, against their respective antigens. Both chimeric antibodies elicited an immunodominant anti-idiotypic response in the absence of adjuvant. A striking (40%–43%) reduction (P<0.01) in total lesion areas was observed in 18-week-old mice immunized with chP3R99, but not chP3S98, compared with PBS-treated mice. The antiatherosclerotic effect was associated with increased mice sera reactivity against heparin and sulfated glycosaminoglycans, including chondroitin and dermatan sulfate. In addition, purified IgG from chP3R99-immunized mice blocked the retention of apolipoprotein B–containing lipoproteins within the arterial wall of apolipoprotein E−/− mice.
Conclusion—The present study supports use of active immunization and the mounting of an idiotypic antibody network response against glycosaminoglycans as a novel approach to target atherosclerosis.
- Received July 28, 2011.
- Accepted October 2, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.