Effects of High-Density Lipoproteins on Pancreatic β-Cell Insulin Secretion
Objective— Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired β-cell secretory function, insulin resistance, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, and increased cardiovascular risk. Given the current interest in therapeutic interventions that raise HDLs levels, this study investigates the effects of HDLs on insulin secretion from β-cells.
Methods and Results— Incubation of Min6 cells and primary islets under basal or high-glucose conditions with either apolipoprotein (apo) A-I or apoA-II in the lipid-free form, as a constituent of discoidal reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs), or with HDLs isolated from human plasma increased insulin secretion up to 5-fold in a calcium-dependent manner. The increase was time and concentration dependent. It was also KATP channel and glucose metabolism dependent under high-glucose, but not low-glucose, conditions. The lipid-free apolipoprotein-mediated increase in insulin secretion was ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 and scavenger receptor-B1 dependent. The rHDL-mediated increase in insulin secretion was ABCG1 dependent. Exposure of β-cells to lipid-free apolipoproteins also increased insulin mRNA expression and insulin secretion without significantly depleting intracellular insulin or cholesterol levels.
Conclusion— These results establish that lipid-free and lipid-associated apoA-I and apoA-II increase β-cell insulin secretion and indicate that interventions that raise HDLs levels may be beneficial in type 2 diabetes.