Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and −9 Differentially Regulate Smooth Muscle Cell Migration and Cell-Mediated Collagen Organization
This article requires a subscription to view the full text. If you have a subscription you may use the login form below to view the article. Access to this article can also be purchased.
Objectives— Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) produce both matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, enzymes with similar in vitro matrix degrading abilities. We compared the specific contributions of these enzymes to SMC-matrix interactions in vitro and in vivo.
Methods and Results— Using genetic models of deficiency, we investigated MMP-2 and MMP-9 roles in SMC migration in vivo in the formation of intimal hyperplasia and in vitro. In addition, we investigated potential effects of MMP-2 and MMP-9 genetic deficiency on compaction and assembly of collagen by SMCs.
Conclusions— MMP-2 and MMP-9 genetic deficiency decreased by 81% and 65%, respectively (P<0.01), SMC invasion in vitro and decreased formation of intimal hyperplasia in vivo (P<0.01). However, we found that MMP-9, but not MMP-2, was necessary for organization of collagen by SMCs. Likewise, we found that MMP-9 deficiency resulted in a 50% reduction of SMC attachment to gelatin (P<0.01), indicating that SMCs may use MMP-9 as a bridge between the cell surface and matrix. Furthermore, we found that the hyaluronan receptor, CD44, assists in attachment and utilization of MMP-9 by SMCs. Understanding the specific roles of these MMPs, generally thought to be similar, could improve the design of therapeutic interventions aimed at controlling vascular remodeling.
- Received August 4, 2003.
- Accepted September 30, 2003.