P2Y Receptor Regulation of PAI-1 Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
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Abstract—P2Y-type purine and pyrimidine nucleotide receptors play important roles in the regulation of vascular hemostasis. In this article, the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) by adenine and uridine nucleotides was examined and compared. Northern analysis revealed that RASMCs express multiple P2Y receptor subtypes, including P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6. Treatment of RASMCs with UTP increased PAI-1 mRNA expression and extracellular PAI-1 protein levels by 21-fold (P<0.001) and 7-fold (P<0.001), respectively. The ED50 for the effect of UTP on PAI-1 expression was ≈1 μmol/L, and its maximal effect occurred at 3 hours. UDP stimulated a 5-fold increase (P<0.005) in PAI-1 expression. In contrast to these potent stimulatory effects of uridine nucleotides, ATP and 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2-MeSATP) caused a small and transient increase in PAI-1 mRNA at 1 hour, followed by a rapid decrease to baseline levels. ADP produced only an inhibitory effect, reducing PAI-1 mRNA levels by 63% (P<0.05) at 3 hours. The relative nucleotide potency in stimulating PAI-1 expression is UTP>UDP>ATP=2-MeSATP, consistent with a predominant role of the P2Y6 receptor. Further studies revealed that exposure of RASMCs to either ATP or ADP for 3 hours inhibited both UTP- and angiotensin II–stimulated PAI-1 expression by up to 90% (P<0.001). Thus, ATP induced a small and transient upregulation of PAI-1 that was followed by a strong inhibition of PAI-1 expression. These results show that extracellular adenine and uridine nucleotides exert potent and opposing effects on vascular PAI-1 expression.
- Received July 29, 1999.
- Accepted November 4, 1999.