CD9 Participates in Endothelial Cell Migration During In Vitro Wound Repair
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Abstract—CD9, a widely expressed membrane protein of the tetraspanin family, has been implicated in diverse functions, such as signal transduction, cell adhesion, and cell motility. We tested the effects of an anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody (ALMA.1) on the migration and proliferation of human vascular endothelial cells (ECs) during repair of an in vitro mechanical wound mimicking angiogenic processes. ALMA.1 induced dose-dependent inhibition of wound repair with a 35±1.5% decrease at 20 μg/mL. Only cell migration was affected, because the rate of proliferation of ECs at the lesion margin was not modified and because the inhibition of repair was also observed for nonproliferating irradiated ECs. Monoclonal antibodies against CD63 tetraspanin (H5C6) and control mouse IgG (MOPC-21) were inactive. CD9, one of the most abundant proteins at the surface of ECs, colocalized with β1 or β3 integrins on EC membranes in double-labeling immunofluorescence experiments with ALMA.1 and an anti-β1 (4B4) or anti-β3 (SDF.3) monoclonal antibody. Moreover, ALMA.1 and 4B4 had additive inhibitory effects on lesion repair, whereas 4B4 alone also inhibited EC proliferation. In transmembrane Boyden-type assays, ALMA.1 induced dose-dependent inhibition of EC migration toward fibronectin and vitronectin with 45±6% and 31±10% inhibition, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. 4B4 inhibited migration toward fibronectin at 10 μg/mL but had no effect in the case of vitronectin. Adhesion of ECs to immobilized anti-CD9 monoclonal antibodies induced tyrosine-phosphorylated protein levels similar to those observed during interactions with β1 or β3 integrins. These results point to the involvement of CD9 in EC adhesion and migration during lesion repair and angiogenesis, probably through cooperation with integrins. As such, CD9 is a potential target to inhibit angiogenesis in metastatic and atherosclerotic processes.
Presented in part at the XIVth Congress of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis, June 6–12, 1997, Florence, Italy, and published in abstract form (Thromb Haemost. 1997;[suppl]:138).
- Received May 11, 1999.
- Accepted July 12, 1999.