Probucol Enhances Selective Uptake of HDL-Associated Cholesteryl Esters In Vitro by a Scavenger Receptor B-I–Dependent Mechanism
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Abstract—Recently, the class B, type I scavenger receptor (SR-BI) has been shown to mediate the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl esters (CEs), ie, lipid uptake independent of HDL holoparticle uptake. In vivo, this selective uptake delivers CEs to the liver for excretion and to steroidogenic tissues for hormone synthesis. Probucol, a hydrophobic antioxidant drug, lowers plasma cholesterol in humans and rodents and may inhibit progression of atherosclerosis and postangioplasty restenosis. In this study, the effect of probucol on HDL selective CE uptake was investigated in mice and in cells expressing SR-BI. Probucol feeding lowered plasma HDL cholesterol and markedly increased selective CE uptake from HDL in the liver and adrenal glands. However, probucol did not alter SR-BI protein levels in membranes from these organs. When incubated with control Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, HDL isolated from probucol-treated mice (P-HDL) and HDL from control mice (C-HDL) showed similar low selective uptake of CEs. However, when incubated with SR-BI–transfected CHO cells, P-HDL showed a 2-fold increase in selective uptake compared with C-HDL. In an adrenal cell line (Y1-BS1), which expresses SR-BI in an adrenocorticotropic hormone–inducible manner, P-HDL showed significantly greater selective CE uptake than did C-HDL, and the differential response was amplified by adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. In contrast to P-HDL, incorporation of this compound into HDL in vitro did not result in stimulation of selective CE uptake by SR-BI–transfected CHO cells, even though a significant mass of probucol could be detected in the HDL preparation. The specific interaction of P-HDL with SR-BI in cell culture could be observed after only 24 hours of probucol feeding, when there were minimal changes in HDL size and composition. Thus, probucol or one of its metabolites increases selective CE uptake in vivo by modifying HDL in a way that causes enhanced interaction with SR-BI. The increased interaction of P-HDL with SR-BI in the liver and arterial wall may be partly responsible for the effects of probucol on atherosclerosis and restenosis.
- Received June 8, 1998.
- Accepted October 21, 1998.