A common deletion polymorphism in the apolipoprotein A4 gene and its significance in lipid metabolism.
Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV, protein; APOA4, gene) is a major constituent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles, but its precise function in lipid metabolism is still uncertain. We have determined APOA4 genetic polymorphism in 285 randomly selected Melanesians from the Solomon Islands and have evaluated its significance in lipid metabolism. By using isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting techniques, a variant pattern, indistinguishable from the APOA4*2 allele uniquely found in white populations at a frequency of about 8%, was detected at a relatively high frequency (19%) in the Melanesian sample. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing of the 3' end of the APOA4 gene revealed that the Melanesian mutation is distinct from the known APOA4*2 mutation and that it involves a four-amino acid deletion in the evolutionarily conserved carboxyl-terminal region in the apoA-IV protein, which consists of four repeats of four amino acids each. After adjustment for concomitant variables, we investigated the impact of the deletion polymorphism on plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, apoA-I, apoA-II, and apoE. A significant (P = .02) and gene-dosage effect was observed on the plasma levels of apoA-I and apoA-II: these levels were lowest in individuals homozygous for the deletion allele (D), intermediate in heterozygotes (ND), and highest in homozygous individuals for the normal allele (N). The average effect of the APOA4*D allele was to lower apoA-I and apoA-II by 8 mg/dL and 2 mg/dL, respectively, and the APOA4 polymorphism accounted for about 3% of the phenotypic variance in both cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association