Effect on plasma lipid levels of different classes of mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.
We used the single-strand conformational polymorphism method to screen 311 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia from London lipid clinics and Southampton and South West Hampshire health district for mutations in the 3' part of exon 4 of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene. This part of the gene codes for repeat 5 of the binding domain of the LDL receptor, which is known to be critical for the receptor-mediated removal of both triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants and LDL. Six previously described mutations were identified in 29 apparently unrelated individuals (9.3%), with the mutations all lying within a 50-bp fragment of the gene. Three of the mutations are null alleles producing no protein, and the other three lead to production of a defective protein. The effect of the different gene mutations on lipid levels was examined, after the data were combined with information on previously reported mutations in this patient group. Mean LDL cholesterol levels were highest in those individuals with a mutation creating a null allele (9.54 mmol/L) and were similar to levels in those individuals with a mutation affecting repeat 5 that resulted in the production of a defective protein (9.37 mmol/L). In this sample, previously identified patients with a defective protein mutation outside repeat 5 had lower mean levels of LDL cholesterol (7.78 mmol/L), which were similar to levels seen in patients in whom the specific mutation had not been identified (7.31 mmol/L). Overall, these differences were highly statistically significant (P < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association