Increased production rates of LDL are common in individuals with low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol, independent of plasma triglyceride concentrations.
Reduced plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease. Although plasma HDL levels are, in general, inversely related to plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations, a small proportion of individuals with low HDL cholesterol concentrations have normal plasma TG levels. We wished to determine whether subjects with low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol could be characterized by common abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism independent of plasma TGs. Therefore, we studied the metabolism of low density lipoprotein (LDL) apolipoprotein B (apo B) and HDL apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) in subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations with or without hypertriglyceridemia. Nine subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels and normal levels of plasma TGs and LDL cholesterol were studied. Autologous 131I-LDL and 125I-HDL were injected intravenously, and blood samples were collected for 2 weeks. LDL apo B and HDL apo A-I levels were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. Fractional catabolic rates (FCRs, pools per day) and production rates (PRs, milligrams/kilogram.day) for each apolipoprotein were determined. The results were compared with those obtained previously in nine subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels and hypertriglyceridemia and in seven normal subjects. The normal subjects had an HDL apo A-I FCR (mean +/- SD) of 0.21 +/- 0.04. Despite large differences in plasma TG levels, the HDL apo A-I FCRs were similar in the low-HDL, normal-TG group (0.30 +/- 0.09) and the low-HDL, high-TG group (0.33 +/- 0.10), although only the latter value was significantly increased versus control subjects (p < 0.03). Increased apo A-I FCRs were associated with reduced HDL apo A-I levels in both groups of patients. Apo A-I PRs were similar in all groups. In contrast, LDL apo B PR was increased approximately 50% in the low-HDL, normal-TG group (19.3 +/- 6.6; p < 0.01) compared with normal subjects (12.5 +/- 2.6). There was a strong trend toward a greater LDL apo B PR in the low-HDL, high-TG group (17.6 +/- 4.5; p = 0.06 versus normal subjects) as well. LDL apo B FCRs were similar in all three groups. LDL apo B concentrations were also increased in the group with low HDL cholesterol and normal TG levels. Both groups with low HDL cholesterol levels had cholesterol-depleted LDL and HDL particles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association