Interactions between the monocyte/macrophage and the vascular smooth muscle cell. Stimulation of mitogenesis by a soluble factor and of prostanoid synthesis by cell-cell contact.
The effect of soluble factors from the monocyte/macrophage (M phi) on cell proliferation and the functional effects of cell-cell contact on the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade were studied with vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Peripheral blood M phi s were isolated by adherence or in a Percoll gradient, and alveolar M phi s were obtained by lavage. Conditioned medium (CM) was prepared by preincubating M phi s with medium alone or by separating SMC and M phi cocultures by a membrane insert. Cell proliferation (image analysis) and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha, radioimmunoassay) were measured in SMCs. Labeled prostanoids and other eicosanoid metabolites were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography from SMCs prelabeled with 14C-AA. M phi s did not synthesize 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The CM enhanced proliferation but did not stimulate 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis in SMCs. However, cell-cell contact in cocultures of SMCs with the same concentration of M phi s used to generate CM resulted in increased 6-keto-PGF1 alpha synthesis by SMCs. Since the stimulatory effect of cell contact was not blocked by butylated hydroxytoluene, it could not be attributed to an oxidative burst from M phi s. Functional studies showed that the stimulatory effect of cell contact was enhanced by exogenous free AA and by endogenous AA release through A23187. Release of total radioactivity from prelabeled SMCs was enhanced by cell contact, and this effect was blocked by indomethacin (IM). Cell contact did not increase the release of free AA from prelabeled SMCs, even in the presence of IM. Finally, cell contact only stimulated the formation of prostanoids (IM-sensitive eicosanoid metabolites) from prelabeled SMCs. Lipoxygenase and other products of AA were not formed through cell-cell contact. These data showed that M phi s express a soluble factor that enhances SMC proliferation without affecting prostanoid synthesis. Subsequent cell contact between SMCs and M phi s stimulates prostanoid synthesis, which may possibly serve as a local and focal homeostatic mechanism for the regulation of uncontrolled SMC proliferation in atherogenesis.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association