In vivo metabolism of apolipoprotein A-I in a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), caused by a defect in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, results in high plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol due to both overproduction and delayed catabolism of LDL. FH is also associated with significantly lower levels of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I in both heterozygous and homozygous patients. However, the metabolic basis of the hypoalphalipoproteinemia in FH has not been elucidated. We investigated the kinetics of apo A-I in a homozygous FH patient and two normal control subjects by using endogenous labeling with a stable isotopically labeled amino acid. Study subjects were administered a primed constant infusion of 13C6-phenylalanine for 12 hours. Apolipoproteins were isolated from plasma drawn at selected time points and analyzed for their isotopic enrichment by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The fractional catabolic rate of apo A-I in the FH subject was found to be substantially increased (0.38 day-1) compared with that of the normal subjects (mean, 0.26 day-1). In addition, the apo A-I production rate was decreased in the FH subject (6.5 mg/kg.day-1) compared with the normal subjects (mean, 11.1 mg/kg.day-1). In conclusion, the low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo A-I in this homozygous FH patient are due to the combined metabolic defects of increased apo A-I catabolism and decreased apo A-I production.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association