Effect of arterial proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans on low density lipoprotein oxidation and its uptake by human macrophages and arterial smooth muscle cells.
The reversible interaction of low density lipoprotein (LDL) with arterial chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) or glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) selects LDL particles with a high affinity for sulfated GAGs and also induces modifications in apolipoprotein B (apo B) and the lipid organization of the lipoprotein. In the present work we studied the effect that the reversible interaction with sulfated polysaccharides has on the susceptibility of LDL to in vitro oxidation. For this purpose soluble, nonaggregated CSPG- or GAG-treated LDL was subjected to oxidation in the presence of 5 microM CuSO4 for as long as 48 hours. The rate of formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, the decrease in isoelectric point, the increase in relative electrophoretic mobility of LDL, the higher degradation rate by human macrophages, and the lower degradation rate by human arterial smooth muscle cells showed that LDLs exposed to CSPGs and GAGs were significantly more susceptible to oxidation than native LDL. Results from competition experiments indicate that C6S-treated LDL after 4 hours of oxidation is taken up via the acetylated LDL receptor in human macrophages. Coincubation of lipoproteins with human macrophages or human arterial smooth muscle cells for 24 hours also indicated that C6S-treated LDL was more susceptible to cell-induced modifications than native LDL. The occurrence in vivo of similar processes may contribute to focal retention, increased rate oxidation of LDL in the arterial intima, and foam cell formation during atherogenesis.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association