Effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on physical properties and metabolism of low density lipoprotein in humans.
The effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were investigated in relation to the chemical and physical properties of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and how these changes affected LDL metabolism in humans. The subjects received supplements of six capsules daily, each capsule containing 1 g of either highly concentrated ethyl esters of n-3 fatty acids (85% eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) (n = 12) or corn oil (56% linoleic and 26% oleic acid) (n = 11). After 4 months of oil supplementation, the following changes were observed in the lipid moiety of the n-3-enriched LDL particles compared with LDL from the corn oil group: LDL cholesteryl ester, as well as the amount of total lipids of LDL, was significantly lower (0.97 +/- 0.12 versus 1.19 +/- 0.23 mg/mg protein and 1.88 +/- 0.40 versus 2.45 +/- 0.31 mg/mg, respectively; mean +/- SD, n = 6, p less than 0.05); the amount of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and the unsaturation index increased (104.0 versus 29.4 micrograms/mg protein and 6.64 versus 5.49, respectively); and differential scanning calorimetry showed that LDL cholesteryl ester melting temperature was lowered by 2 degrees C (27.6 +/- 0.8 degrees versus 29.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C). The only effect observed on the protein moiety was an increase in the ratio of apolipoprotein (apo) B to cholesterol (0.66 +/- 0.17 versus 0.82 +/- 0.14 mg/mg cholesterol; p less than 0.05). Circular dichroism spectra of LDL indicated an alpha-helix content of 46 +/- 5% in apo B from both groups. No difference was observed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the ratio of "active" to "normal" lysine residues of apo B. No detectable differences in the size of n-3 fatty acid-enriched LDL particles versus control LDL could be measured by either electron microscopy of negatively stained LDL (24.5 +/- 2.0 versus 25.0 +/- 1.5 nm) or dynamic light scattering (24.9 +/- 0.9 versus 24.9 +/- 0.4 nm). LDL from the fish oil and corn oil groups showed similar susceptibility to Cu(2+)-catalyzed lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of lipid peroxides formed during the oxidation time, and degradation of oxidatively modified LDL in J774 macrophages as a function of Cu2+ oxidation time. No effect of n-3 fatty acids was observed on LDL metabolism. Specific uptake and degradation of n-3 fatty acid-enriched LDL were similar to those for control LDL in HepG2 cells as well as in human skin fibroblasts, and they showed the same ability to stimulate cholesteryl ester synthesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association