Activation of calpain I and hydrolysis of calpain substrates (actin-binding protein, glycoprotein Ib, and talin) are not a function of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation.
Calcium-activated neutral proteinase (calpain) has been shown to cleave proteins involved in the maintenance of cell structure. In human platelets, substrates of calpain include glycoprotein Ib (GPIb), actin-binding protein (ABP), and talin. GPIb-ABP complexes can be isolated in detergent extracts and are thought to represent membrane-cytoskeleton attachment sites. It has been hypothesized that the hydrolysis of GPIb-ABP by calpain is regulated by the extent of binding of this proteinase to the plasma membrane-cytoskeleton interface with platelet activation. Recently, another calpain substrate (talin) has been shown to redistribute from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane-cytoskeleton interface as the result of thrombin stimulation. To investigate the intracellular distribution of calpain I, we employed the monoclonal antibody B27D8, specific for the heavy chain (catalytic subunit) of calpain I. Indirect immunofluorescent staining of resting human platelets revealed undetectable surface antigen. Permeabilization with Triton X-100, however, revealed a diffuse intracellular antigen consistent with a cytosolic distribution. To determine whether this antigen distribution reflected the proenzyme or the activated form of calpain I and to assess the degree of hydrolysis of ABP, GPIb, and talin, we employed B27D8 and murine monoclonal antibodies against ABP (1B3 and 3D1), GPIb (LJIb10), and rabbit polyclonal antibodies against talin (A2 and B11) in a quantitative immunotransblot assay. Examination of resting platelets revealed that calpain I existed as the 85-kd proenzyme form and that ABP, GPIb, and talin existed in their native intact forms. When platelets were aggregated with thrombin, autoproteolysis of calpain I occurred within the 30 seconds required to completely solubilize platelet aggregates in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing buffer and not as a direct result of thrombin-induced activation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association