Effect of interleukin-1 on lipid metabolism in the rat. Similarities to and differences from tumor necrosis factor.
Infection and inflammation are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, which is thought to be mediated by cytokines. Previous studies at our laboratory and others have shown that tumor necrosis factor acutely increases serum triglyceride levels primarily by stimulating hepatic lipid synthesis and secretion. The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a cytokine that is also secreted by stimulated macrophages and that has many actions that overlap those of tumor necrosis factor, has not been studied in depth. The present study demonstrates that IL-1, at doses similar to those that cause fever and anorexia and that stimulate adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion, rapidly increases serum triglyceride levels; this elevation persists for at least 17 hours. Serum cholesterol levels are not altered by IL-1. Neither is the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins affected by IL-1. However, hepatic triglyceride secretion, measured by the Triton WR-1339 technique, is increased in IL-1-treated animals. Accompanying this stimulation in hepatic lipid secretion is an increase in de novo fatty acid synthesis in the liver. IL-1 does not increase serum free fatty acid and glycerol levels, suggesting that IL-1 does not stimulate lipolysis in vivo. Additionally, inhibition of lipolysis does not prevent the increase in serum triglyceride levels, providing further evidence that lipolysis does not play a crucial role in the increased hepatic lipid synthesis and secretion induced by IL-1. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor increases lipolysis, which contributes to the increase in serum triglycerides. That multiple cytokines rapidly elevate plasma triglyceride levels suggest that these changes in lipid metabolism may play an important role in the organism's response to infection and inflammation.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association