Apolipoprotein E polymorphism association with lipoprotein profile in endogenous hypertriglyceridemia and familial hypercholesterolemia.
Apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism was among the first-reported genetic polymorphisms that explained part of the normal variation in plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of allelic variation at the apo E gene locus on the plasma lipoprotein profile in hyperlipidemia. The lipoprotein levels of hyperlipidemic subjects of the major apo E phenotypes (E3/2, E3/3, and E4/3) were compared. One hundred eighty-two subjects with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia and 98 subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia due to a 10-kb deletion in their low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor genes were compared with 424 normolipidemic controls from the same environmental background. LDL concentrations were lower in the E3/2 subset than in the E3/3 or E4/3 subset in the control, hypertriglyceridemic, and familial hypercholesterolemic groups. In absolute values, the magnitude of the effect was greatest in the familial hypercholesterolemic group. However, the direction and percentage change were identical in the presence or absence of the LDL receptor defect, indicating that the apo E phenotype effect is independent of LDL receptor status. Triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol concentrations were higher in E3/2 than in E3/3 or E4/3 hypertriglyceridemic subjects, but this difference was not found in the familial hypercholesterolemic or control group. Thus, there seems to be a specific interaction between apo E isoforms and VLDL metabolism in hypertriglyceridemia; allelic variation at the apo E gene locus seems to be associated with specific alterations in the plasma lipoprotein profile of subjects with well-defined types of hyperlipidemia.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association