Cholesterol accumulation in J774 macrophages induced by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Comparison of very low density lipoprotein from subjects with type III, IV, and V hyperlipoproteinemias.
The capacity of human triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to induce cholesterol accumulation in the murine J774 macrophage cell line was investigated with large very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, Sf 60-400) obtained from subjects with type III, IV, and V hyperlipoproteinemias. After incubation for 24 hours, VLDLs from type IV and type V subjects were similar in their ability to raise cellular cholesterol deposition threefold to fourfold and cellular triglyceride 16-fold. The increase in cholesterol was entirely due to the dramatic increase in cholesterol ester, from less than 1 to greater than 50 micrograms/mg cell protein. Total cholesterol accumulation was fourfold to fivefold greater than the cholesterol accumulation observed for VLDL or low density lipoprotein (LDL) from normal subjects. Cholesterol esterification (acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase [ACAT] activity) paralleled the rate of cholesterol accumulation in these cells. Treating the macrophages with the ACAT inhibitor 58035, which is known to downregulate the LDL receptor in these cells, diminished cholesterol accumulation by 40% for type IV VLDL and by 23% for normal LDL. Since hypertriglyceridemic VLDL carries excess apoprotein (apo) E molecules, we investigated the role of normal and abnormal apo E. An anti-apo E monoclonal antibody, known to block the binding of apo E to the LDL receptor, blocked type IV VLDL-induced cholesterol ester accumulation by approximately 70%. In contrast to type IV subjects, VLDL from type III subjects (homozygous for apo E2) when incubated with J774 macrophages (which do not secrete apo E) caused only a modest 1.5-2-fold increase in cellular cholesterol. Pre-beta- and beta-migrating VLDL subfractions from type III subjects were equally ineffective in causing cholesterol accumulation. By contrast, beta-VLDL from cholesterol-fed rabbits caused a sevenfold to eightfold increase in cellular cholesterol content. These results indicate that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from type IV and type V subjects can cause substantial cholesterol ester accumulation and enhanced cholesterol esterification in J774 cells. The lower cholesterol accumulation with type IV VLDL in the presence of apo E antibodies and VLDL from type III subjects demonstrates the importance of functional apo E in this process.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association