Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid-enriched diets on plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable (n-6) and marine (n-3) oils have been shown to reduce cholesterol levels in normolipidemic individuals. However, there is relatively little information available on the lipoprotein responses to dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in individuals with genetic forms of hyperlipidemia at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. We studied five subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), as well as five normal controls, on three rigidly controlled diets differing primarily in their fatty acid composition. FH subjects reduced their total plasma cholesterol by 34% during the n-3 diet and by 26% with the n-6 diet (both p less than 0.001) when compared with values while on a butter diet. In addition, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol fell 31% and 29% (both p less than 0.001), and apolipoprotein B (apo B) levels dropped 28% and 27% (both p less than 0.01) during the n-3 and n-6 diets, respectively. A significant reduction of total and LDL cholesterol as well as of apo B was also noted in normal controls during n-3 and n-6 diets. Total plasma triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol fell significantly during n-3 diets in normal and FH subjects. Thus, FH and normal subjects respond in a similar fashion to diets low in saturated fatty acids and rich in n-3 and n-6, with decreased LDL cholesterol and apo B concentrations.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association