Dose- and shear rate-dependent effects of heparin on thrombogenesis induced by rabbit aorta subendothelium exposed to flowing human blood.
The effect of heparin on thrombogenesis induced by the subendothelium of rabbit aorta was investigated in 24 healthy volunteers after intravenous injection of different doses (0, 1000, 2500, and 5000 IU). By using an ex vivo perfusion chamber system, the interaction between flowing blood and exposed subendothelium was measured at low (50 s-1), intermediate (650 s-1), and high (2600 s-1) wall shear rates. The low shear rate simulated blood flow in venous, the intermediate shear rate in arterial, and the high shear rate in small or stenosed arterial vessels. Deposition of fibrin, platelets, and platelet thrombi on vascular subendothelium (SE) was quantified by morphometrical and immunological techniques. Fibrin deposition prevailed at low shear rates and was only minimal at high shear rates (30 +/- 1% vs. 1 +/- 0.4% coverage of SE with fibrin, means +/- SEM, p less than 0.001). In contrast, the interaction of platelets with SE was more intense at high compared to low shear rates, as indicated by higher platelet adhesion (54 +/- 5% vs. 4 +/- 1% coverage of SE with platelets, p less than 0.001) and platelet thrombus volumes (4.8 +/- 1.3 vs. 0.5 +/- 0.1 microns 3/microns 2, p less than 0.001). Fibrin deposition on SE was inhibited by heparin in a dose-dependent manner and was abolished after high doses. In addition, high doses of heparin reduced the height and volume of platelet thrombi at low and intermediate wall shear rates, but no effect was found at the high shear rate. Our data show that heparin inhibits the formation of both fibrin and platelet thrombi on vascular subendothelium. The lack of effect of heparin on platelet thrombus formation at high shear rates indicates that thrombin modulates the growth rate and/or stability of platelet thrombi at low and intermediate shear rates, whereas additional factors may control platelet thrombus growth and stability at high shear conditions.
- Copyright © 1990 by American Heart Association