Inheritance of low density lipoprotein subclass patterns in familial combined hyperlipidemia.
The inheritance of low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclass patterns was investigated in 234 members of seven large kindreds with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL), a disorder characterized by elevated LDL cholesterol and/or triglyceride and increased coronary disease risk in families. Analysis of LDL subclasses by nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed a predominance of large, buoyant LDL particles (pattern A) in 71% of the family members and a predominance of small, dense LDL particles (pattern B) in 29% of family members. Based on complex segregation analysis, pattern B appeared to be inherited as an autosomal trait with either a dominant or an additive mode of inheritance and a small, but significant, multifactorial inheritance component. The proposed allele for pattern B was common (frequency = 0.3), and reduced penetrance was observed among men under age 20 and among women under age 50. These results in these FCHL families are consistent with those from a previously reported population-based sample of families, in which pattern B showed an apparent dominant mode of inheritance. In that study, reduced penetrance was observed for men under age 20 and for premenopausal women, but a somewhat lower allele frequency was found for pattern B (0.25). In the FCHL family members, LDL subclass pattern B was associated with significantly increased plasma levels of apolipoprotein B and triglyceride and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol. In comparison with a group of controls, the FCHL family members with pattern A had similar mean triglyceride levels, but higher mean apolipoprotein B. Thus, in families with FCHL, a predominance of small, dense LDL particles appears to be inherited as a common, single-gene trait, which is closely associated with the higher plasma triglyceride levels found in these families. The increased plasma apolipoprotein B levels found in FCHL cannot, however, be accounted for by this proposed locus.
- Copyright © 1990 by American Heart Association